Hydro-mechanical Coupling and Flow

  • Fluid flow and mechanical simulations can be done separately or coupled
  • The fluid flow is approximated by a flow through a network of pipes that connect fluid elements, located at the centers of either broken springs or springs intersected by pre-existing joints
  • The flow pipe network is dynamic and automatically updated by connecting newly formed micro-cracks to the existing flow network
  • Non-steady fluid flow is modeled within the joint network and intact rock, maintaining continuity of fluid mass and pressures between joints and the rock matrix
  • Effective stress calculations are carried out
  • Fracture permeability depends on aperture, or on the deformation of the solid model
  • Fluid pressure affects both deformation and the strength of the solid model
  • The deformation of the solid model affects the fluid pressures (i.e., fluid pressure changes under undrained conditions)
  • Includes logic for simulation of proppant transport and placement
  • Newtonian and power-law fluid flow available
  • Non-Darcy effects and pressure drop at perforation clusters are possible
  • Represents leakoff explicitly, as flow into DFN and porous medium flow into rock matrix, or as Carter leakoff
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